Measure surface energy and contact angle of solid substrates. Find the Surface Tension or Interfacial Tension of liquids with a DuNouy Ring or Wilhelmy Plate.
Identifying Moisture (H2O) content is vital to many producton and Quality Control situations. Karl Fischer titraiton is one of the most trusted methods for measureing H2O accurately.
Reagents are used to operate the Karl Fischer Titrator. Depending on the sample being tested various combinations may be used. Water standards are also recommended for making easy checks.
Manual titration has been around for a long time. Reducing human error and improving testing efficiency and reporting can be accomplished with automatic titrators.
Understanding the liquid properties of products helps identify not only the mass and volume but also even helps to categorize the type of liquid - This is popular in the petroleum industry.
Thermal conductivity and heat flow are two popular and common approaches to testing. Today even environmental testing using the WBGT is being used to help identify these conditions.